Tag: harmful practices

The cover of Savera UK's Impact Report which reads 'Our Impact'

Savera UK launches Impact Report 2022/23

Savera UK exists to end ‘honour’-based abuse (HBA) and harmful practices. This is our mission and the area in which we seek to always make an impact.

Each year, we look back on our work, measure our success and share our findings with our funders, partners, peers and supporters in our Impact Report.

That future is a world without HBA and harmful practices.

Today, Savera UK has published its third annual Impact Report. In it we look back on the service delivered in 2022/23 as well as the accomplishments and successes.

Over the past 12 months we have not only delivered our direct intervention services, education programmes and campaign work, but we have also redeveloped our visual identity, redefined our messaging and created our three-year Business and Communication Strategy, which tells the Savera UK story so far and looks forward to our vision for the future.

Between April 2022 and March 2023 we…

  • Safeguarded and advocated on behalf of 178 active clients
  • Spent 4,046 hours working to help those at risk of, and survivors of, ‘honour’-based abuse and harmful practices find their ‘Savera’ (meaning new beginning)
  • Engaged 10,354 people through Savera UK events and campaigns
  • Reached 4,383 professionals via training and awareness courses, education and awareness sessions, events and conferences about HBA and harmful practices

We invite you to explore our latest Impact Report and see the progress that has been made, hear from our survivors, our supporters and learn more about our future plans and how you can join us.

Read the Impact Report here. 

Savera UK Volunteers Macy and Krinal

Meet Savera UK Volunteers Macy and Krinal

This Volunteers Week, Savera UK is highlighting the generosity of those who give up their free time to join the organisation in working towards its mission of ending ‘honour’-based abuse (HBA) and harmful practices.

We spoke to Savera UK volunteers Macy and Krinal to discuss their experience at the charity and what they enjoy about volunteering.

Hi! Please tell us a bit about you.

Hi, I am Krinal! I am a MSc Investigative & Forensic Psychology student at University of Liverpool. I enjoy watching true crime documentaries and shows and it’s almost a year since I have moved to Liverpool from India.

Hi, I’m Macy, I have a first class degree in Forensic Psychology which I did at Leeds University. I also have experience in research, collecting data and report writing and aspire for a career in mental health. I am currently working in the food & hospitality industry.

Why did you choose to volunteer for Savera UK?

Krinal: As someone who comes from a culture and country that has witnessed a lot of cases of ‘honour’-based abuse (HBA), the work that Savera UK does resonated with me. It does such good work to help those who are facing HBA, which most people are unaware of or do not know how to help. I wanted to contribute and help empower those at risk in the safe space they are provided at Savera UK.

Macy: I chose to volunteer at Savera UK because I am passionate about supporting human rights, particularly women’s rights. As Savera UK safeguards and advocates on behalf of many women of colour I thought this would be very fitting for me. I also wanted to get some experience working in a setting that helps people with their mental health.

How long have you been a volunteer with the organisation, and how often do you volunteer?

Krinal: I have been volunteering for two to three weeks at Savera UK now and I volunteer once a week three to four hours.

Macy: I have been a volunteer for just over a month and I volunteer for a couple of hours a week, usually on a Friday.

What does your role involve?

Krinal: My role mainly involves supporting clients with recreational activities or learning activities that they are interested in to help support their interests. It also involves supervised training for interventions with survivors of HBA.

Macy: I assist in running client led sessions. We do fun activities such as go to the park, go to the museum, dance classes and watching films. I also help keep the client spaces tidy and bring the clients refreshments.

What has been the best part about volunteering with Savera UK so far?

Krinal: I think it is seeing clients be so happy and feeling a sense of happiness myself. Plus, Savera UK staff are probably the best colleagues I could have asked for. They are all so supportive and welcoming – you feel like it is a second home.

Macy: I feel I have made really positive relationships with some of the clients and I really enjoy the sessions.

What have you learnt since becoming a volunteer for Savera UK?

Krinal: I have a long way to go before I am truly well-versed in helping and intervening with survivors, but I think it is how I am more sensitive and attuned to how to behave and converse with them that does not involve sympathy but just care. I have also learned about supervising the activities.

Macy: I have learned a lot about harmful practices and ‘honour’-based abuse. I have also learned about different cultural practices including food and religious celebrations.

Do you think others should apply to volunteer with Savera UK?

Krinal: Yes. Anyone who is interested in helping end ‘honour’-based abuse or even just helping those at risk receive support should apply to volunteer with Savera UK because their work is meaningful, and it impacts so many women’s lives. It is an enriching experience.

Macy: I definitely think others should apply to volunteer for Savera UK because I feel I am gaining a lot of experience and it is a really rewarding role, especially after a good session with the clients. All the staff are really friendly and it is a great environment to be in.

Thank you Macy and Krinal, we’re so pleased to have you as part of the team! Are you interested in becoming a volunteer at Savera UK? Apply to become a volunteer here.

Student Spotlight

Student Spotlight: Fortune, Social Work Student

At Savera UK, students are regularly welcomed as part of university placements. Here they learn about the work the team is doing to end ‘honour’-based abuse (HBA) and harmful practices and how the organisation operates.

Between February and May we were joined by Fortune, who is studying a Masters in Social Work at Liverpool Hope University. Read about her experience with us below!

Hi Fortune! How did you first hear about Savera UK?

The university introduced me to Savera UK for placement, best thing ever!

What has your day-to-day role been like?

My daily routine included working directly with Savera UK clients, who are at risk of HBA and harmful practices. This involved advocating for them and checking on their emotional and welfare needs, making sure that needs were met on time. I would refer and signpost clients to other relevant organisations where necessary and share information with other professionals to find the best solutions for clients’ specific needs, and to reduce risks caused by HBA and harmful practices.

Of all your tasks, which has been your favourite?

Advocating for clients and meeting their emotional needs has been the most exciting task for me. It gave me joy and satisfaction to know that I have been positively impacting people’s lives and making a difference. This has helped me to promote social justice, anti-oppressive and anti-discriminatory practices that liberate people from all forms of abuse and give them independence and safety in life.

What were some of the more challenging aspects of the role?

Dealing with people from diverse backgrounds requires highly sophisticated communication and interpersonal skills. This is because each client has a different set of needs that requires a unique problem-solving approach. There is no universal mechanism to solve people’s problems, there is need to come up with person-centred specific solutions to solve these problems. This challenges the support worker to think outside the box and apply different theories and methods to help the people in need.

What can be done to help with those difficulties?

Savera UK has made and is on a mission to continue make a huge impact in people’s lives. What the organisation has done and is still doing can never be taken for granted, so it is recommended that the organisation keeps on doing the amazing work.

What has been aspect of the role that has surprised you the most?

I was surprised with the fact that Savera UK is just an amazing team of very humble and professional people. The treatment I got made me feel welcomed, warm and that I was part of an amazing family. They valued my contributions, ideas and also trusted my ability to hold cases and offer a 1-1 service to clients. The team is amazing, full of people with positive energy and love. I have never found myself struggling because everyone was ready to guide, assist, review and help me in the most amazing ways.

Did your placement at Savera UK live up to the expectations you had before starting?

To say expectations were met is an understatement; I have been equipped for Social Work practice, I have gained sophisticated knowledge and skills on how to work with clients from diverse backgrounds. I have been exposed to the most challenging and yet exciting Social Work experiences. I am very proud of the Savera UK team because they focus on the core aspects of diversity, social justice, anti-oppressive and anti-discriminatory practices.

What will be your main takeaway following your placement with us?

Everything, just everything I have been exposed to for the past 70 days; multi-agency working, professionalism, empathy, dealing with diversity, understanding the needs of the clients and carrying out risk assessments, all forms of HBA and harmful practices. I have gained unquestionable skills and experience during this placement and that will help shape my future practice.

What do you think is the biggest challenge for charities supporting those at risk of harmful practices?

The biggest challenge for charities in offering advocacy and emotional support to those at the risk of harmful practices is that in most cases these harmful practices are embedded in long-standing and ancient cultural practices, which many people and communities have accepted to be part of their daily norms. It requires more effort and resources to educate the people on how these practices are an infringement to human rights and how important it is for people to abandon such practices and liberate themselves or their loved ones. Another challenge is that it may be difficult for other professionals or agencies to fully accept or recognise the work of the charities that help those at the risk of harmful practices. Sometimes there is lack of understanding of these harmful practices and how detrimental are to those at risk.

How can this be overcome?

We must continue to educate the communities and individuals about how harmful some cultural practices can be while carrying out aggressive awareness campaigns into schools and communities so that most people are equipped with the appropriate knowledge on how to tackle such problems should they face them. There is need to seriously keep on engaging with other professionals and agencies to make sure that information sharing is prioritised and there are clear communication lines on what exactly needs to be done by all.

What are your plans for the future?

My plan for the future is to continue with Social Work practice and to continue to safeguard and advocate for those at risk of, and survivors of, HBA and harmful practices.

What did you enjoy the most about your time at Savera UK?

I have enjoyed every bit of it. I have loved working with humble, professional and supportive people. They have made my 70 days ecstatic and short. I could not ask for anything more, the team is amazing and very rich in knowledge of HBA and harmful practices. They know what needs to be done, when and how.  Thank you very much Savera UK, for your warmth and support, you have equipped me with professional knowledge no one can take away for me. I am very proud of and have so much respect for you. Wishing you great exploits all the time!

Cheshire PCC Partnership

Savera UK extends service with funding from Cheshire PCC

Savera UK has been awarded funding from Police and Crime Commissioner for Cheshire, John Dwyer, to extend its service into the region and to help end ‘honour’-based abuse (HBA) and harmful practices in Cheshire.

More than £321,000 has been awarded to Savera UK by the PCC through a successful application for the Government’s Domestic Abuse Perpetrator Interventions Fund. The funds will allow for training of professionals when spotting the signs of HBA and harmful practices and will equip them with the right tools when working with those at risk.

Through the funding Savera UK’s Direct Intervention Team will grow and the charity will work to build new partnerships with organisations in Cheshire in order to raise awareness among professionals and communities.

John Dwyer, PCC for Cheshire, said: “I am delighted to secure this funding and that the partnership with Savera UK is growing. Educating and empowering practitioners to spot the signs of HBA and respond appropriately and confidently to those at risk is extremely important.

“By raising awareness of HBA and harmful practices, we can help to break the taboo around the subject, providing support for people who feel there may be no other way out.

“In my Police and Crime Plan, I make clear my commitment to helping those who have a greater risk of becoming a victim of crime. I believe this enhancement of the project being delivered by Savera UK will help safeguard and support survivors and help them to continue with their lives.”

Afrah Qassim, Founder and CEO of Savera UK, said: “I would like to thank the Police and Crime Commissioner for this opportunity to grow our relationship, supporting the development and delivery of Savera UK’s specialist services within in Cheshire. Since 2016 the charity has delivered one-to-one safeguarding and advocacy to those at risk and survivors of HBA and harmful practices, while campaigning to end these violations of human rights for good.

“Misconceptions about HBA and harmful practices can put those experiencing these types of abuse at further risk, both directly and indirectly. We have seen first-hand how professionals working closely with those at risk can be unaware of the level of danger.

“Our specialist team works tirelessly to challenge decisions which risk putting survivors in further danger.

“It’s through these experiences we know how vital education is in ending HBA and harmful practices for good. Through delivering education and training sessions in Cheshire thanks to this funding, we will raise awareness among professionals, young people and the general public to help safeguard those at risk.

“Focusing our work in Cheshire, knowing we will be able to reach more people at risk and raise further awareness is an exciting prospect and helps us continue to work towards our vision of a world without HBA and harmful practices.”

To learn about ‘honour’-based abuse and harmful practices, visit the Savera UK Learning Hub. 

If you are at risk, or if you are a professional in need of advice, you can call Savera UK’s specialist helpline on 0800 107 0726 (operates 10am – 4pm). Always call 999 if you are in immediate danger.

Referral forms for individuals and professionals are available here.

Mental Health Awareness Week

Blackburne House delivers trauma therapy workshops to Savera UK clients

This Mental Health Awareness Week, Savera UK is highlighting the impact ‘honour’-based abuse (HBA) and harmful practices can have on mental health. Often Savera UK clients experience trauma as a result of ongoing abuse, which can manifest in different ways.

As the result of a new partnership with Blackburne House, Savera UK is able to offer clients trauma therapy workshops. During the sessions, conducted over a 10 week period, clients learn about their trauma, understand its physical manifestations and practice methods of managing it.

Fiona, Lead Counsellor, explains because of the impact trauma can have on the body, much of the work they’re doing is physical.

She said: “It’s about feeling safer inside yourself. Trauma recovery works in stages. It’s very practical things we’re doing, like noticing muscle tension. All the work is physical, somatic work to give you the feeling of being in control and making your own choices. These exercises help develop different neural pathways.

“Our job is to provide the knowledge and skills so clients can go away and experiment and begin to notice ‘What does my body feel?’ ‘How is my breathing?’, ‘Am I in a state of distress?’. If you are, it’s key to notice it and interrupt it.”

Clare, a counsellor also leading the sessions, said: “We’re stimulating the nervous system into a chilled, relaxed state.”

Two sessions in with Savera UK clients, Fiona says they have already been laughing and “seem to be enjoying it”. Clare added: “When they’re all laughing they are making connections with each other, and it’s some of those things we don’t always appreciate.”

Fiona explains trauma is “grounded in neuroscience”. She said: “When you’re in trauma or distress you spend a lot of time in your body feeling panicky, you might not be sleeping or looking after yourself. This impacts your mental health, your decision making – it affects everything.”

Clare said: “By moving, doing something to the spinal cord and breath you’re activating the vagus nerve that shuts down when experiencing trauma.”

Because the threat of HBA and harmful practices can be lifelong, survivors may experience ongoing trauma over a long period of time, which can have different effects depending on if a person has been able to process it at the time, and can impact recovery.

Fiona said: “It’s about your history, so if you’ve had an adverse childhood experience as well as trauma as an adult it’s more complex. Different things happening over a period of time can also result in complex PTSD.”

The knowledge taken away from the sessions aren’t just helpful for clients, Fiona added, explaining “they can go home and teach their kids how to self-regulate”, “passing on these facts can be really important for kids”.

As well as the trauma therapy workshops, yoga teacher Nu from Blackburne House will be delivering trauma informed yoga sessions, which will help ease muscle tension and encourage reconnecting with the body in a calm state.

Thank you Fiona and Clare, we look forward to catching up with you both as your sessions progress!

If you are at risk of ‘honour’-based abuse and harmful practices, you can contact Savera UK’s helpline on 0800 107 0726.

International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM, 2023

International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM 2023

The International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is just one week away, taking place annually on 6th February.

FGM is the removal or injury of external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. It is estimated that 200 million women and girls have been subjected to this practice globally.*

First launched in 2003, the day is an United Nations-sponsored awareness day that takes place as part of the UN’s efforts to eradicate FGM.

FGM is just one harmful practice that Savera UK works to end, here in the UK and around the world.

If you would like to learn more about FGM and how you can help to stop it, join Savera UK in supporting the International Day of Zero Tolerance for FGM. 

Please read, watch and share the resources below and tag @SaveraUK and use #EndFGM if you are sharing on socials.

READ: FGM Factsheet information on female genital mutilation

READ: Harmful Practices Factsheet – wider information on harmful practices

WATCH: One Chance Rule Video – if someone makes a disclosure that they are at risk of FGM or other harmful practices, or you believe they are at risk, there may only be one chance to help them. This video explains what you need to do

WATCH: Savera UK Youth “Orange Brick Road” Video – An overview of harmful practices, including FGM, for young people. This video was created by Savera UK Youth. Educational resources for schools and youth groups are available to facilitate discussion around the topics

WATCH: Savera UK FGM Support: How We Can Help Video – Information on what support Savera UK can provide to those at risk of, or survivors of, FGM

*Source: UNICEF, https://www.unicef.org/protection/female-genital-mutilation

Savera UK CEO shortlisted for Northern Power Women Awards 2023

Savera UK’s CEO and Founder, Afrah Qassim, has been shortlisted in the Northern Power Women Awards 2023.

'Person with Purpose' sponsored by Stella, Northern Power Women Awards 2023

Afrah has been shortlisted in the ‘Person with Purpose’ category, sponsored by Stella. ‘Person with Purpose’ celebrates those who are driven by their personal motivation to volunteer or support a social change, charity, not for profit or community.

Afrah founded Savera UK, then Savera Liverpool, in 2010, and worked voluntarily for the charity for 10 years, while also working a full-time role in the NHS while as well as being a member of the board for the Liverpool Arab Arts Festival, a charity delivering arts and community programmes while bringing diverse cultures together, for which she later became the Chair.

Since its inception, Savera UK has grown to deliver safeguarding and advocacy for those at risk of ‘honour’-based abuse (HBA) and harmful practices, like forced marriage, female genital mutilation and virginity testing. Savera UK also campaigns against these practices through awareness-raising and education, tackling the causes of harmful practices.

Afrah said: “I am incredibly grateful to have been shortlisted in the Person with Purpose category alongside so many inspiring change makers. Thank you to the people who put me forward for this award and our supporters and funders, without whom we wouldn’t be where we are today. I would also like to thank the Savera UK Board, Advisory Board and Youth Advisory Board for their support and commitment.

“This work would not be possible without the commitment of the Savera UK team, who share my vision for a world without ‘honour’-based abuse and harmful practices. Thank you for your hard work and dedication.”

The 89 finalists in the seventh Northern Power Women Awards were selected from 1,500 nominations from across all sectors and regions across the Northern Powerhouse.

The Northern Power Women Future List and Power List will be announced on 7 February 2023 and the awards will take place on Monday 20th March 2023, at Manchester Central Convention Complex.

Afrah Qassim, CEO and Founder of Savera UK and Police and Crime Commissioner for Cheshire, John Dwyer

Cheshire PCC and Savera UK launch partnership

Police and Crime Commissioner for Cheshire, John Dwyer has joined forces with Savera UK to support its work in providing life-saving services for those at risk of ‘honour’-based abuse (HBA) and culturally specific abuse in Cheshire.

Through funding provided by the Commissioner, the charity has been able to employ a HBA and Harmful Practices Specialist Worker to join Savera UK 1-1 service team to provide direct intervention to survivors and those at risk or under threat of ‘honour’-based abuse and harmful practices.

Police and Crime Commissioner for Cheshire, John Dwyer, said: “I am delighted to be working with Savera UK, the direct intervention, safeguarding and advocacy that they provide to communities across Cheshire is vital. ‘Honour’-based abuse is often under-reported and can

Afrah Qassim, CEO and Founder of Savera UK and Police and Crime Commissioner for Cheshire, John Dwyer
Afrah Qassim, CEO and Founder of Savera UK and CEO of Cheshire PCC Office, Damon Taylor

be referred to as a ‘hidden-crime’ because of this. By having Savera UK’s provision in our county, it may just give people the confidence they need to come forward and report their experiences.

“Protecting vulnerable and at-risk people is a priority in my Police and Crime Plan, and those at risk of ‘honour’-based abuse can be some of the most vulnerable in our society. I am looking forward to working alongside Savera UK to ensure survivors get the safeguarding and support that they need in order to rebuild their lives.”

As well as the direct intervention, safeguarding and advocacy that Savera UK provides to  survivors we will also be providing them with emotional support, an empowerment programme and assistance in gaining economic independence.

Savera UK also aims to tackle the causes of ‘honour’-based abuse and harmful practices by speaking out to challenge harmful attitudes, contributing to research and delivering training to raise awareness among professionals and in the wider community.

CEO and Founder of Savera UK, Afrah Qassim, said: “Partnerships are vital in our mission to eradicate ‘honour’-based abuse and harmful practices and we are proud to be working with the Cheshire Police and Crime Commissioner to tackle these issues in the county.

“Guiding and supporting people working on the frontline to better understand harmful practices, speak out against them, and provide appropriate help to survivors and those at risk enables us to reach more people who otherwise may not have found the confidence to seek help.

“Meeting the team to formally launch our partnership was a wonderful experience and its commitment to tackling these issues shone through. We look forward to working with Cheshire PCC in our united aims and making it clear that there is no excuse for abuse regardless of people’s beliefs.”

There are many signs of ‘honour’-based abuse and other harmful practices, indicators can include:

  • House arrest- being kept home with no choice of freedom or movement
  • Threats to kill- those who believe in HBA would like their loved one in the name of ‘honour’, so threats must be taken seriously
  • Being accompanied at all times by a family member- they may even speak on their behalf
  • Becoming withdrawn or displaying a change in behaviour
  • Family disputes
  • Presenting a fear of being taken abroad

John Dwyer added: “I want to take this opportunity to encourage anyone who is experiencing or witnessing ‘honour’-based abuse to speak out. Speaking out isn’t easy but it takes us step closer to eradicating harmful practices within our communities. Savera UK is there to help and support you, but I would like to remind the public that 999 should always be the first contact if there is an immediate risk.”

The Savera UK helpline is open weekdays 10am-4pm on 0800 107 0726, there are also online referral forms for individuals and professionals available in the “Get Help” section of the website.

A title image which reads 'Savera UK study reveals core elements of 'honour'-based abuse in the UK

Savera UK study reveals core elements of ‘honour’-based abuse in the UK

Emotional/psychological abuse and coercive control has been identified as the most common characteristic of ‘honour’-based abuse (HBA) and harmful practices, in new research conducted by the University of Liverpool and Savera UK.

The research ‘Honour’-based abuse: A descriptive study of survivor, perpetrator, and abuse characteristics[1], published last month in the Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, examines survivor, perpetrator, and abuse characteristics in anonymised cases of HBA and harmful practices such as forced marriage and female genital mutilation (FGM), provided by Savera UK.

Much information on HBA currently available is based on self-reporting and exploration of individuals’ lived experience, meaning baseline data to help better understand the issues is limited. The study was instigated by Savera UK to fill this gap, working in partnership with the University of Liverpool and using the charity’s own data to identify base rates of survivor, perpetrator, and abuse characteristics.

Of 66 abuse characteristics identified by researchers, the study highlighted that a case of HBA would usually present with around 14 of these characteristics.

Emotional/psychological abuse and coercive control, specific family cultural traditions, gender-based socialisation and physical violence were found to be present in 90% of coded cases, suggesting these to be core elements of HBA in the UK.

Abuse characteristics associated with survivors that are usually highly linked to cases of HBA, such as exploration of identity or sexuality, were present less frequently than expected. For example, premarital sex, which features highly in literature about HBA based on self-reported data and survivor stories, was only present in 20 cases.

This study was able to explore broader and subtler forms of abuse, as the data reflected not only survivor experiences, but also the professional judgement of Savera UK support staff specialising in this field.

It also highlighted overlaps between HBA and domestic abuse, as well as clear separating markers, such as the presence of multiple perpetrators, specific family cultural traditions and community influencing the perpetrator(s).

In its examination of survivor characteristics, the study found that almost half (41.4%) held UK citizenship, 27.8% asylum seekers and 18.1% had limited or indefinite leave to remain. The majority were Muslim (74.8%) but Christianity was the second most prevalent religion among survivors with (14.2%).

Almost two thirds of cases had multiple perpetrators (63.1%) and all involved male perpetrators, with additional female perpetrators in 36.4% of cases. However, no cases involved a sole female perpetrators.

Speaking of Savera UK’s first-ever research paper, Afrah Qassim, CEO and Founder of the charity, said: “The lack of data around HBA and harmful practices has always been a challenge for organisations like Savera UK that support survivors and those at risk.

“When we established the charity in 2010 many local authorities told us there was no need for our service because there was no data indicating that HBA was an issue. Since then we have worked to uncover these hidden practices and demand for our service has increased by more than 1,000 per cent between 2016 and 2022.”

“This baseline data is vitally important and a starting point to allow better understanding of the prevalence of different abuse characteristics and improved insight into HBA in the UK. This information will help frontline workers like police officers and social workers to more easily identify and support survivors and those at risk, develop specialist HBA risk assessment tools, improve prevention strategies and inform where further research is urgently needed to help tackle these issues.”

Professor Louise Almond, from the University of Liverpool, said: “This base rate study highlights the wide range of abuse suffered by ‘honour’-based abuse survivors. What was most surprising was the low prevalence of characteristics that have been previously linked with ‘honour’ based abuse in Western media. Our study reflects a potentially different “reality” for these survivors, one which is more nuanced than maybe the public and/or statutory agencies realise”

To read the full paper visit: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jip.1602

[1]  K.Ridley, L.Almond, N.Bafouni, A.Qassim (2022) ‘Honour’-based abuse: A descriptive study of survivor, perpetrator, and abuse characteristics, Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jip.1602